The value of securities designated as collateral is based on the prior business day's closing market price, less a haircut. Haircuts are used to protect DTC and its participants from price fluctuations if DTC is required to liquidate collateral of an insolvent participant. Furthermore, because DTC may have to finance a participant's failure overnight, DTC's haircut structure takes into consideration haircuts imposed by our line-of-credit banks. The full market value of securities is not normally obtainable from a bank that accepts securities as collateral to support a loan; banks generally consider the relative price volatility of the collateral and impose a haircut on the market value of securities. Securities that are not acceptable to DTC's line-of-credit banks do not receive collateral value in our system; therefore, a 100 percent haircut is applied to these securities.
DTC employs haircuts ranging from 2 to 100 percent. Because the collateral value of securities is based on their prior day's closing market prices, these haircuts may not be sufficient in cases where prices fall dramatically intraday. DTC can reprice and modify haircuts of selected issues intraday and can systemically revalue the collateral of participants holding these securities.